Botswana is a completely landlocked country in the centre of Southern Africa. One of Southern Africa’s longest rivers, the Okavango, flows into the north-western part of the country, forming the UNESCO World Heritage Site Okavango Delta. Botswana shares borders with South Africa, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

The country covers an area of about 582,000 sq.km² and is relatively flat, at roughly 900 metres above sea level, with gentle undulations and occasional rocky outcrops. The Kalahari Desert occupies more than 70 % of the country, with valleys and pans etched across the landscape. The eastern part of Botswana contains the highest (1,500 metres) and the lowest (500 metres) points of elevation, with hills and deep valleys, whereas the flat vast western portion of the country is semi-arid with rocky outcrops.

The wet seasons occur with significant inter-annual variation, with frequent periods of severe drought. Rainfall is erratic, ranging from 250 mm per year in the south west to over 600mm in the north east. Winters are dry with temperatures dropping to an extreme of about minus 7 degrees Celsius, more commonly though they are nearer zero, with July being the coldest month. Summer months can be very hot, but mean temperatures seldom rise above 39 degrees Celsius.

Gaborone is the capital city and is located in the south east of Botswana.  Other major towns include Francistown, Lobatse, Selebi-Phikwe and Jwaneng. There are sixteen Administrative Districts and associated Councils. The Central Government is represented in each District by the Department of District Administration, headed by a District Commissioner.

The total population size and density as per the 2011 Census are 2,024,904 and 3.5 persons per square kilometre respectively. The population is concentrated in the eastern parts of the country. These are better suited for arable production due to relatively favourable climatic and soil conditions.

Setswana is the national language, while English is the official language used in business and most Government affairs. There are also some indigenous languages which includes several ethnic groups dominated by those who are Setswana speaking, all of which are known as Batswana. Christianity is the main religion and there are a number if indigenous religions throughout the country.

The mining sector, and in particular diamond mining, is the major contributor to the export base, and government policy endeavours to reduce the vulnerability arising from the heavy dependence on diamonds.The livestock industry contributes about 80 % of agriculture’s share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Beef processing accounts for about 80 % of the livestock industry, and over 95 % of beef production is exported.Tourism continues to play an increasingly significant role in the diversification of the economy. Botswana’s impressive economic performance over the past four decades is mainly due to the success of its export sector.

Botswana is a multi-party democracy, with elections held every five years. The president is the Head of State.

The country’s wildlife resources are the foundation on which the tourism industry has been built. Botswana’s most famous wildlife habitat is the Okavango Delta, which covers some 16,800 km², and is a unique area of lagoons, reed-fringed waterways and islands. Other major attractions of Botswana’s pristine beauty can be found in the Kalahari Game Reserve, the Makgadikgadi Pans, the Chobe National Park, the Tuli block and the Tsodilo Hills Monument, a World Heritage Site with its collection of pre-historic art.

Botswana's International Airport: Sir Seretse Khama International Airport (airport code: GBE) is located at the capital, Gaborone. International flights include Air Botswana (to/from Harare, Johannesburg, Lusaka, Nairobi, Victoria Falls, and Windhoek), Air Zimbabwe and South African Airways. You can also take a long-distance bus from several South African towns/cities as well as to and from Zimbabwe.

Herding for Health

CSA rangeland restoration has evolved from over a decade of experience in studying, developing and implementing integrated rangeland management, restoration and stewardship approaches at landscape level within three southern African biomes and biodiversity hotspots: succulent karoo, mesic grassland, and semi-arid savannahs. These sites were the testing ground for implementation of rangeland management strategies in partnership with communal livestock farmers in some of the most rural, impoverished yet biodiverse environments of the region.

Implementation of the Multi-Species Action Plan for African Eurasian Vultures

R1.1 Coordinated mechanisms established for detecting, registering, collecting evidence, managing and monitoring vulture poisoning incidents (Chobe NP, Botswana; Hwange NP, Zimbabwe; and Kafue NP, Zambia) 
R.1.2 Policy and legislation strengthened to protect vultures and other wildlife
a. Policy and legislation influenced to protect vultures and other wildlife from poisoning in the 3 focal countries.
b. Law enforcement agencies supported to bridge the policy implementation gap.
R1.3 Local communities engaged in tackling vulture poisoning 

Ecosystem based adaptation & mitigation in Botswana's communal rangelands

Project sites are communal lands which may be adjacent to, but may not directly lie within the GMTFCA

Ecosystem based adaptation & mitigation in Botswana's communal rangelands

Project sites are communal lands adjacent to, not directly within the KTP

Pro-nature Enterprises for the People of Southern Africa

The project seeks to address the challenges that rural communities living in and around wildlife areas face in building viable livelihoods out of their livestock, land and other resources. Outdated restrictions in place to cur risks from Foot and Mouth Disease from wildlife to livestock, including bans on livestock sales and extensive fencing to separate wildlife & livestock, have heightened poverty & land degradation & blocked wildlife routes. The rangelands compone of the project is based on the Herding for Health (H4H) model.

Managing the human-wildlife interface to sustain the flow of agro-ecosystem services & prevent illegal wildlife trafficking in the Kgalagadi & Ghanzi Drylands

The CKGR & KTP are two of Botswana's strategic protected areas that contain significant populations of lions & cheetahs. Loss of wildlife due to poaching & competition for land use & NR has resulted in negative consequences for conservation & the livelihoods of rural communities.

Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods in TFCAs

Aim: Promote & strengthen sustainable management of TFCAs through local development respectful of biodiversity conservation, by promoting a change in attitude from local communities towards TFCAs & a paradigm shift on their role in co-management of TFCAs

Activities include sustainable agricultural & NRM, HWC mitigation & addressing illegal activities. 

Various Projects

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The projects are aimed at building resilient communities and ecosystems